Download E-books Astral Sciences in Mesopotamia (Handbook of Oriental Studies) PDF

By Hermann Hunger, David Pingree

Astronomy and astrology, or the astral sciences, performed an important, if no longer key position within the political and spiritual lifetime of the traditional close to East, and of the Greek and Roman global. this article offers a complete account of the origins of the astral sciences within the historical close to East. all sorts of Sumerian or Akkadian textual content facing descriptive or mathematical astronomy, together with many person pills are completely handled. It additionally good points descriptions of astronomical contents, a proof in their clinical which means, and where a given style or pill has within the improvement of astronomy either in the Mesopotamian tradition and outdoors of it.

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23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. Small big name four cubits in the back of King Rump of Lion Rear Foot of Lion unmarried big name in entrance of Furrow shiny superstar of Furrow Southern a part of Scales Northern a part of Scales center superstar of Head of Scorpion top megastar of Head of Scorpion Lisi shiny famous person on Tip of Pabilsag's Arrow Horn of the Goat-Fish entrance superstar of Goat-Fish Rear superstar of Goat-Fish ρ Leonis nine Leonis β Virginis γ Virginis α Virginis α Librae β Librae δ Scorpii β Scorpii α Scorpii θ Ophiuchi Ρ Capricorni γ Capricorni δ Capricorni 124;26° 131;25° 144;42° 158;30° 171;54° 193; 10° 197;26° 210;37° 0;1° 9;39° 0;39° 2;59° -1;54° 0;37° 8;45° -1;41° 211 ;13° 1 ;18° 217;49° 229;26° 272;4° 289;43° 291;28° -4;16° -1;31° 4;51° -2;19° -2;1Γ we'd simply in short observe what has frequently been remarked on, that those stars are very erratically dispensed alongside the ecliptic. Twenty-two lie among zero° and 180°, merely ten among one hundred eighty° and 0°. in addition, there's a tremendous empty hole of sixty three° among superstar 32 and celebrity 1. The reason(s) for such an severe disequilibrium is/are tricky to realize. despite the fact that, RoughtonCanzoneri [1992] have succeeded in picking "Normal Stars" hello Sagittarius known as easily "the 4 stars within the East of Sagittarius" (which they determine with μ(13), 14, 15, and sixteen Sagittarii) and "the 4 stars within the West of Sagittarius" (which they determine with ν 1 , ν 2 , ξ 1 , and ξ 2 Sagittarii. They locate those stars in Diaries, Goal-Year Texts, and Observational Texts, of which the earliest is dated -329. The statements concernhig the cubits among the planets or die Moon and the "Normal big name" they express to be longitudinal variations, measured at the ecliptic with no regard for the latitudes of eidier the planets or the Moon or the "Normal Stars", they usually recommend that during such a lot instances the planetary longitude used to be computed (planetary latitudes weren't computed) and never saw. This consequence implies that the Babylonians possessed catalogues of standard Stars giving their longitudes. we now have a fraction of the sort of catalogue, although the longitudes given in it are rounded off to integer numbers of levels. BM 46083 used to be released through Sachs [1952]; the best column preserves the subsequent details to which we've got additional the proper info from of standard Stars recorded above. bankruptcy a hundred and fifty BM 46083 common Stars 20(? ) Leo(? ) 30(? ) (Leo? or? ) 1 Virgo sixteen (Virgo) Root of Bar1ey-Sta1k(? ) vivid (star) of Barley Stalk? 28(? ) Virgo 20 Libra Southern Balance-Pan 25 Libra Northern Balance-Pan top (Star) 20. θ Leonis 21. β Virginis 131 ;25" 144;42' 22. 23. 24. 25. 27. 158;30' 171 ;54' 193;10' 197;26' 211;13' Loin(? ) [of Lion] Rear Foot of Lion γ α α β β Virginis Virginis Librae Librae Scorpii If we glance on the distinction in longitude within the sequence, we see that the Babylonian longitudes are particularly reliable, although their zero-point is of course assorted from ours. BM 46083 basic Stars 1 . 1 zero ° or eleven° 2. sixteen° or 15° three. 12°(? ) 13;17° 13;48° 13;24° four. 22°(? ) 21;16° five. five° 6.

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